The twin 2016 resolutions passed by the UN Security Council and General Assembly on the review of the UN peacebuilding architecture (commonly referred to as the Sustaining Peace resolutions) emphasise inclusivity as ‘key to advancing national peacebuilding processes’. This section lists a number of important milestones in the development of the Peacebuilding and Sustaining Peace Agenda.
The Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations (commonly known as the Brahimi report), underscoring the importance of the UN establishing more effective strategies for conflict prevention, is presented to the General Assembly and Security Council.
The General Assembly and Security Council adopt twin resolutions (A/RES/60/180 and S/RES/1645) establishing the UN’s peacebuilding architecture, including the Peacebuilding Commission and the Peacebuilding Support Office. The resolutions also contain a request for the Secretary-General to establish a peacebuilding fund.
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan establishes the Peacebuilding Fund, the UN’s financial instrument of first resort to sustain peace in countries or situations at risk or affected by violent conflict.
As part of a review of UN peacebuilding, ‘Challenge of sustaining peace: Report of the Advisory Group of Experts on the Review of the UN’s Peacebuilding Architecture‘ is presented to the General Assembly and Security Council. The concept of sustaining peace is introduced, recognising peacebuilding as a process that is needed before, during and after conflict.
The General Assembly and Security Council adopt twin resolutions (A/RES/70/262 and S/RES/2282) on the review of the UN’s peacebuilding architecture. The resolutions endorse the concept of sustaining peace and underline the importance of inclusivity in advancing sustaining peace and in particular the role of civil society, women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflict.
In January, the Secretary-General’s 2018 report on peacebuilding and sustaining peace calls for the UN to improve its engagement with civil society at the local level.
In April, the General Assembly and Security Council adopt twin resolutions (A/RES/72/276 and S/RES/2413), calling on the Secretary-General to submit an interim report on peacebuilding, including financing of peacebuilding, and a comprehensive report as part of the 2020 review of the UN’s peacebuilding architecture.
In May, the UN and the World Bank publish a joint study, Pathways for Peace, arguing that the key to preventing crises is investment in inclusive and sustainable development and that inclusive decision making is fundamental to sustainable peace.
The 2019 report of the Secretary-General on peacebuilding and sustaining peace notes that ‘strategic partnerships with regional and sub-regional partners on Peacebuilding and Sustaining Peace remain a priority for the UN’.
In August, the Peacebuilding Support Office, with support of a joint UN–civil society working group, publishes the UN Community Engagement Guidelines. The guidelines aim to support UN field presences in developing country-specific community engagement strategies on peacebuilding and sustaining peace; and provide operational guidance to UN field presences on how to more effectively engage with civil society actors at the local level in peacebuilding and sustaining peace.
In December, the General Assembly and Security Council adopt twin resolutions (A/RES/75/201 and S/RES/2558) completing the 2020 review, noting that the lack of adequate financing remains a critical challenge to sustainable peace and calling for a comprehensive review of UN peacebuilding in 2025.